Pulmonary Tuberculosis | Definition,Symptoms, Diagnosis

In March 24, 2012,  WHO (World Health Organization) organize the World Day of fight against tuberculosis. On this occasion, although this disease is thought to be extinct but actually it is still kill 600 deaths per year in France.

Definition of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of the lung and its membranes. It is Contagious.  It is a direct consequence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  More than two billion people are infected with the bacteria, which accounts for nearly a third of the world population (2010 figures, WHO). Only one in ten  of  Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection develop the disease.

Bad  living conditions in very tight spaces, are conducive to the emergence of disease conditions. Tuberculosis primarily affects people living in overcrowded  homes,  for the homeless, and prisonary facilities.

Symptoms of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

If you get onset of symptoms, it is best to consult quickly GP to receive adequate treatment.

Symptoms of TB are easily recognizable:

  • a cough that gradually becomes productive with mucus, phlegm and sometimes blood
  • chest pain ,
  • respiratory distress,
  • a shortness of breath on exertion,
  • fevers ,
  • lack of appetite,
  • an excessive sweating .

 Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

A microscopic examination of sputum in a smear and a chest x-ray (interstitial images micronodular type cavitary image characteristics …) should be performed  in most cases to make a diagnosis.

Screening and vaccination

A screening of the pre tuberculosis is tuberculin skin test (TB skin test) or blood samples (IGRA).

For fragile individuals, subjects considered at risk (children, immunocompromised, the elderly, etc.)., screening may also be based on X-ray chest and bacteriological examinations . the vaccine BCG , which is no longer required since 2007,  in the past, has drastically reduce many cases of tuberculosis. Note: Without treatment, an infected person can transmit the virus TB on average, 10 15 people in just one year.

 Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

There is only one treatment against tuberculosis. On average, it takes six months and involves taking several antibiotics simultaneously. The surgery can, mainly in developing countries, be given for complications such as pleural, bronchial and parenchymal lesions or act against an outbreak of bacilli resistant to antibiotics .

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